Approximately on the seventh day after fertilization, the egg is attached to the inner shell of the uterus. From this time, the active production of the human chorionic gonadotropin begins – the hormone, which in every possible way helps the embryo not to perish in the first weeks of its existence.
The name of the hormone comes from the name chorion – the structure of the embryo, responsible for the production of this substance. Over time, it is from the chorion that the placenta is formed, which also continues active production of HCG throughout pregnancy. The name gonadotropin originated from gonads – the mother’s sexual organs. The hormone helps them rebuild to support a newly born life. HCG actively acts on the maternal glands, much stronger than their own hormones. In addition, the impact of the protein hormone helps the body of the future mother to cope with pregnancy-related stresses, weakens the immune system, able to tear away the growing embryo.
The first and most important reason why pregnant women give an analysis for HCG is a confirmation of pregnancy. Immediately after implantation of the embryo, the level of the hormone jumps tenfold, compared to the amount of its content in the blood of not pregnant women of childbearing age. The level of the hormone increases not only in the blood, but also in the urine, which makes it possible to determine the presence of a new life even at home using the usual pregnancy test. In addition, control of hCG makes it possible at early stages of pregnancy to determine various abnormalities in its course. Thus, the discrepancy between the amount of human chorionic gonadotropin content in the blood can signal an ectopic or frozen pregnancy, spontaneous abortion in the early stages, and insufficient development of the placenta. A qualitative test for the presence of HCG in urine determines or refutes the diagnosis of pregnancy. The blood determines not only the presence of the hormone, but also its quantity. For example, pregnancy by HCG content in the blood is determined as early as 5-6 days after the fertilization of the egg, while the usual tests confirm the same only after about 2 weeks after conception. During the first two weeks, the level of HCG in the blood doubles approximately every 1.5 days. Its peak falls on 10-12 weeks. Further, the sufficiently mature placenta assumes the function of the hormonal center, and the amount of the hormone in the blood of the mother begins to gradually decrease.